In Hyper, volumes offer high availability, durability, and consistent performance needed to run your workloads. It is a persistent storage service for use with containers. Multiple replicas will be automatically created with each volume in the same region to protect your data from failure.

Volume use the EXT4 filesystem (with more options on the roadmap). Each container is shipped with a default root volume of 10GB. Additional volumes can be created and attached to containers separately:

$ hyper volume create --size=10 --name=dbdata

New volumes can be created based on an existing snapshot. The new volume begins as an exact replica of the original snapshot (same size):

$ hyper volume create --snapshot=mysnapshot --name=dbdata

To mount volumes to a container, use hyper run.

$ hyper run -v dbdata:/opt/data/ --name mycontainer ubuntu

You can also mount the same volume to different mountpoints of the same container.

$ hyper run -v vol1:/opt/data -v vol1:/opt/log --name=mycontainer ubuntu

You can also create volumes with run:

# new blank volume (10GB) will be created and mounted onto `/container/path`
$ hyper run -v /container/path --name mycontainer ubuntu

# 10GB volume will be created and populated with data from /local/path
$ hyper run -v /local/path/:/container/path --name mycontainer ubuntu

# 10GB volume will be created and populated with data from git://url[:branch]
$ hyper run -v git://url[:branch]:/container/path --name mycontainer ubuntu

# 10GB volume will be created and populated with data from http://url.git[:branch]
$ hyper run -v http://url.git[:branch]:/container/path --name mycontainer ubuntu

# 10GB volume will be created and populated with data from from http://url
$ hyper run -v http://url:/container/path --name mycontainer ubuntu

Volume size

A volume can be create in sizes between 10 and 50 GB.

Volume lifecycle

Once a volume is attached to a container, it will be associated with the container throughout the container's lifecycle, which means that when you (re)start the container, you don't need to mount the volume again. And it cannot be attached to a different container unless the first attaching container is removed.

However, when you rm a container, the attached volumes will be automatically unmounted. To remove the auto-created volumes along with a container:

$ hyper rm -v db_container

Volume Failover

To failover a volume, you need to stop or rm the old container, and launch a new one to mount the volume.

$ hyper rm db_contaienr
$ hyper run -v dbdata:/opt/data --name new_db ubuntu

Volumes are constrained by region. There is currently no way for containers to access volumes residing in different regions.

Volume Reuse

Notes on reusing existing volumes: users should pay attention to volume access permissions. For example, if a volume is first mounted in container foo and then reused in container bar, the file/directory permissions in the volume will remain the same those set in container foo. As a result, a change of container users (uid/gid pair) may effect the volume's access rights.

Image Volume Creation

New volumes will be created automatically if VOLUME section is present in the container image.

$ hyper run --name mycontainer hyperhq/noauto_volume_test
$ hyper volume ls
DRIVER              VOLUME NAME                                                       SIZE                CONTAINER
hyper               d358e606246ce22c9d528913f6990c45cd8ddbb7df7d8e1110d3c66b0cbf734   10 GB               1b617eb3ab0f
hyper               805ef123f4e60b048448784a4aa56d13469fb4aa42ae0e1fcd006c2b7b1e807   10 GB               1b617eb3ab0f

You can avoid this by specifying the --noauto-volume option.

$ hyper run --name mycontainer --noauto-volume hyperhq/noauto_volume_test

File Volume Initialization

When initializing a volume with a specified source (local or http) that points to a file, the volume destination must also be a file. The destination file will be created automatically if it does not already exist.

However, if the image itself has a directory at the volume's target destination, the container will fail to start. For example, the following command will fail to start the container, because /etc/hosts is a file source and /mnt is an existing directory in container image ubuntu:14.04. The same applies to http/https based remote volume sources also.

$ hyper run -d -v /etc/hosts:/mnt ubuntu:14.04

Instead, you can avoid the failure by specifying a non-directory place to mount the source file, e.g.:

$ hyper run -d -v /etc/hosts:/mnt/hosts ubuntu:14.04

Shared Volumes

Shared volumes are provided using the --volumes-from option.

You need to create a container using hyperhq/nfs-server image. It runs an optimized nfs-ganesha server and automatically exports all attached volumes via NFS protocol. Once ready, you can mount the exposed volumes in other containers using the --volumes-from option.

For example,the following commands expose two volumes (/data1 and /data2), and mount them in two busybox containers (test1 and test2). test1 and test2 will each have these two volumes mounted at the path /data and /data2.

$ hyper run --name mycontainer -d -v /data1 -v /data2 hyperhq/nfs-server
$ hyper run -d --name test1 --volumes-from mycontainer busybox
$ hyper run -d --name test2 --volumes-from mycontainer busybox

NOTE: Recursive mounting is not allowed, e.g. you cannot re-mount the NFS volumes from containers test1 and test2 to a third one test3:

$ hyper run -d --name test3 --volumes-from test1 busybox
hyper: Error response from daemon: Cannot recursively import volumes from test1.
See 'hyper run --help'.

NOTE: --volumes-from source container must be created with the Hyper official image (hyperhq/nfs-server). Trying to import volumes from containers of other images will fail, e.g.,

$ hyper run -d --name foo busybox
$ hyper run -d --volumes-from foo busybox
hyper: Error response from daemon: volumes-from source container is created from busybox rather than the official image hyperhq/nfs-server.
See 'hyper run --help'.

NOTE: Your hyper/nfs-server container should have enough resources to run the nfs service properly. We recommend creating it with at least s3 size. If you use too small containers, it may be work just fine at first but can fail with OOM if your workload rises. To see a list of size choises when creating a container, see hyper run --help.